If you would like more information on shipping then please read our Useful Shipping Guide below.
Shipping help guide
Useful Shipping Information Guide
Air Waybill - A a non-negotiable agreement between an air carrier and a shipper for the transportation of passengers by air.
All-Risk Insurance - The broadest type of protection offered, offering defence against any risk of physical loss or damage from any outside source. does not protect against loss or damage brought on by delays, inherent vices, insufficient packaging, or lost markets.
BAF (Bunker Adjustment Factor) - A reduction in transportation costs to account for fuel price variations. Likewise referred to as a Bunker Surcharge (B/S). Fuel storage tanks aboard a ship are referred to as bunkers.
Bill of Lading (B/L) - A document issued by a common carrier to a shipper that serves as:
A receipt for the goods delivered to the carrier for shipment. A definition of the contract of carriage of the goods.
A Document of Title to the goods described therein.
This document is generally not negotiable unless consigned "to order."
Bill of Lading, On Board - A bill of lading acknowledging that the relative goods have been received on board a specified vessel.
Bill of Lading, Order - A negotiable bill of lading. There are two types:
A bill drawn to the order of a foreign consignee, enabling him to endorse the bill to a third party.
A bill of lading drawn to the order of the shipper and endorsed by him either "in blank" or to a named consignee. The purpose of the latter bill is to protect the shipper against the buyer's obtaining the merchandise before he has paid or accepted the relative draft.
Bonded Warehouse - A warehouse authorized by customs for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
Break-bulk Vessel - a ship built to transport enormous or massive cargo, typically unfit for storage in containers.
Bulk Cargo - direct loading of loose cargo into a ship's hold.
Bulk Carrier - The dry-bulk carrier and the liquid-bulk carrier, more commonly referred to as a tanker, are the two different types of bulk carriers. A shipment that is not packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed and that is loaded without counting or marking is referred to as bulk freight.
CAD (Cash Against Documents) - A means of paying for items wherein the buyer receives title-transferring documentation after paying cash to a middleman working on the seller's behalf.
CAF (Currency Adjustment Factor) - A carrier's addition to the freight rate intended to cover currency exchange rate fluctuations.
Cargo Insurance - Insurance to safeguard the cargo owner's financial interests in the case of a loss during transit.
Carnet - A a customs document that allows the holder to temporarily convey or transport goods into specific other nations without having to pay taxes or post bonds. To avoid fines, all items travelling on a Carnet must be brought back to the nation of origin.
Carrier - Anybody who, by a contract of carriage, promises to perform or obtain the performance of transportation by land, air, sea, or inland canal.
Certificate of Manufacture - A document used in conjunction with a letter of credit that contains an affidavit stating that items have been produced and are being held for the buyer's account and risk.
Certificate of Origin - A document used in conjunction with a letter of credit that contains an affidavit stating that items have been produced and are being held for the buyer's account and risk.
CFS (Container Freight Station) - The site designated by carriers for the reception of cargo before it is loaded into containers by the carrier is referred to as the CFS at loading port. The word "CFS" refers to the bonded location set aside by carriers for devanning of containerized cargo at discharge or destination ports.
CFS/CFS (Pier to Pier) - When cargo is transported in less-than-containerload quantities to a container freight station (CFS) for loading into containers and unloading from the containers at the destination CFS, this is referred to as CFS/CFS.
CFS Charge (Container Freight Station Charge) - The fee charged for services rendered at the origin or destination for the purpose of loading or unloading cargo into or out of containers at a CFS.
CFS Receiving Services - The service performed at the loading port in receiving and packing cargo into containers from CFS to CY or shipside.
Chargeable Weight - When the dimensional weight factor exceeds the actual weight of the cargo, the rate for airfreight goods will be higher.
Charter - Formerly referred to a flight when a shipper hired an aircraft from an airline, but it has now come to signify any commercial operation that is not scheduled.
Chassis - A rectangular steel frame with wheeled axles and springs that may attach containers for over-the-road transportation.
CIA (Cash in Advance) - A technique of paying for products in which the buyer pays the supplier before the goods are shipped.
Classification - A way of determining the proper tariff number in a customs tariff for the purposes of duty and admissibility.
Combination Vessels - a ship design that can transport both break-bulk and containers. It can either be unable to sustain itself or not. A container/break-bulk vessel is also known as that.
Commercial Invoice - An invoice that serves as a receipt for a transaction and/or the items acquired and names the sender, seller, and the receiver, buyer. An itemised list of the items, complete with their description, unit price, and extended total worth, should be included on a commercial invoice. There may be extra requirements, statements, or clauses that must be included as well, depending on the Customs rules of the destination country.
Conference - In order to determine freight prices, a group of ship owners came together.
Confirmed Letter of Credit -
Consignee - The person or business that receives goods from a seller or shipper and is acknowledged as the owner of the goods for the purpose of declaring and paying customs duties upon presentation of required documentation.
Consignor - A phrase used to designate anyone who, in a bill of lading or comparable document, consigns goods to himself or to another party. A freight forwarder who consigns goods on behalf of his principal or the owner of the goods is both examples of consignors.
Consolidated Shipment - An approach to shipping whereby a representative (such as a freight forwarder or consolidator) aggregates several shippers' consignments into a single shipment sent to a destination agent in exchange for favourable prices. (Also known as "groupage" The destination agent then breaks down the consolidation into its individual component consignments and makes it available to consignees. Shippers can receive better rates through consolidation than they otherwise could.
Consolidator - An agent that groups several shipments for one destination in order to be eligible for preferential pricing.
Consular Documents - Special documents stamped by the consulate of the nation the cargo is headed towards.
Consular Invoice - A document that describes a shipment of commodities and includes details such the consignor, consignee, and amount of the shipment is needed by several nations. A consular invoice is used by the nation's customs officials to confirm the value, quantity, and nature of the consignment. It has been certified by a consular officer.
Date Draft - A draft that matures without regard to the date of acceptance in a certain amount of days after issuance.
DDC - Destination Delivery Charge.
DDP (Delivered Duty Paid) - Also known as "free domicile" or "free house."
DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid) - This reflects the emergence of "door-to-door" intermodal or courier contracts or carriage where only the destination customs duty and taxes (if any) are paid by consignee.
Dead Freight - Freight fees paid by a vessel's charterer for the reserved capacity that is only partially occupied.
Deck Cargo - Carrying cargo on deck as opposed to storing it under deck. For some commodities, like explosives, on-deck carriage is necessary.
Demurrage - A fine for going over the allotted amount of time to load or unload at a pier or freight terminal. Charges for unjustified holding up of carriers or transportation tools when loading or unloading in ports are also possible.
Density - Weight units per unit of volume.
Dim Weight (Dimensional Weight) - The results of determining the chargeable weight from the cubic measurement of a consignment are referred to by this airfreight phrase.
Draft - a written instruction that is given without conditions from one party (the Drawer) to another (the Drawee), directing the Drawee to pay a specific sum to a specific Drawer on presentation or at a specific date.
Drawee - the person or business on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the drawer the specified sum.
EDI or EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport) - This set of standards, which come from the United Nations-backed electronic data interchange standards committee, are used to describe data sets in specific documents so they can be standardized for electronic transfer from one format to another.
Endorsement in Blank
An endorsement in blank, which is frequently used on bank checks, is a bearer endorsement. It merely lists the endorser's name and makes no mention of the payee.
A typical way of attesting to the shipper's order on bills of lading. The bills have the following support:
Export License: A legal document obtained from the government allowing a shipper to export a given amount of a certain commodity to a particular nation. When an export is restricted by the government, an export licence is frequently needed.
Export Trading Company - A company or other business entity set up and run largely for the aim of exporting products or services to other businesses or offering export-related services to them.
FCL - Full Container Load, Full Car Load.
Federal Maritime Commission (FMC) - The U.S. Federal agency responsible for overseeing Ocean Carriers, Conferences, NVOCC's and Ocean Freight Forwarders (now called OTI's - Ocean Transportation Intermediaries) at ocean ports and inland waterways.
Feeder Vessel - A ship that joins a line vessel in order to reach ports that the line vessel does not regularly visit.
FEU - (Forty foot equivalent) usually used to refer to the price of two 20-foot ocean containers when discussing ocean freight rates.
FIATA - International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations.
Flag Carrier - A national registration airline or vessel whose government grants it a partial or complete monopoly over international routes.
Flat Bed Chassis - A semi-trailer without sides or tops, only a level bed. The distance between the ground and the floor is average.
Flat Rack - A platform that can be used to transport big cargo on container ships. It often has removable or adjustable bulkheads at the front and back and may be loaded from the sides and the top.
Force Majeure - The name of a common clause found in maritime treaties that exempts the parties from fulfilling their duties due to unavoidable circumstances, such as earthquakes, floods, or war.
Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) - A port that the government has authorised for the duty-free importation of any non-prohibited products. Within the zone, goods may be manufactured, stored, displayed, and exported again without paying customs. Only when the original goods or products made from those goods leave the zone and enter a region of the country under the control of customs are duties applied. Also known as a free trade area.
Foreign Trade Zone Entry - A declaration form for commodities that are carried duty-free into a foreign trade zone for storage or additional processing before being exported from the zone into the commerce of another country.
Forwarder, Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder - An independent company that transports shipments for exporters in exchange for payment. The company might specialise or ship through land, air, or water. Typically, it takes care of every service associated with an export shipment, including paperwork preparation, cargo space reservations, warehousing, pier delivery, and export clearance. Additionally, the company may manage banking and insurance services on the client's behalf.
Free Out (FO) - The charterer is responsible for paying the ship's unloading expenses.
Free Port - A port that is a Foreign Trade Zone and is accessible to all traders equally, or more particularly, a port where goods may be kept duty-free while awaiting re-export or sale inside that nation.
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) - A multilateral agreement designed to encourage tariff concessions and lower trade barriers.
Gross Weight (GR Wt./GW ) - The whole weight of a shipment, including the packaging and containers.
Harmonized Code - A method of categorising things that is universally acknowledged and used for statistical, statistical analysis, and other applications.
Harmonized System (HS) - A crucial clause of the international commerce act that went into effect on January 1, 1989, and which provided global standardisation for classifying products travelling across borders under a single commodity code.
Hi (or High) Cube - Any container that is taller than 102 inches.
House Air Waybill - A bill of lading from an air freight consolidator.
IATA - International Air Transport Association.
ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) - A department of the UN with its main office in Montreal. It encourages the broad advancement of civil aviation, including safety protocols, contract agreements, and aircraft design and operation.
ICC (International Chamber of Commerce) - A non-governmental organisation that promotes global business policy.
Igloo - A structural container with contours used on main decks of narrow body aeroplanes.
Import License - A document issued by nations with import restrictions that allows the importation of the items listed in the licence and frequently authorises and/or releases the monies needed to pay for the importation.
In-Bond - A word used to describe cargo that hasn't received customs clearance to enter a country's commerce.
INCOTERMS - The set of international guidelines for consistently interpreting common contract provisions in global trade. They were developed in collaboration with numerous international organisations, contain the most recent modifications, and ought to be utilised only.
Inducement - When steamship lines include the words "by enticement" in parentheses after the name of a port in its timetables, it signifies the ship will only dock there provided there is an adequate supply of profitable cargo available and scheduled.
Inland Carrier - A mode of transportation that transports import and export commodities between ports and inland locations.
Inspection Certificate - A document certifying to the fact that goods were in good condition or met particular requirements just before shipping.
Integrated Carrier - a forwarder that doesn't rely on scheduled flights and instead employs its own aircraft, whether it's owned or leased.
Interline - A deal reached by airlines to connect their network of routes.
Intermodal - This describes the ability to go from a ship to a railway to a truck or something similar. The ability to handle containers across various forms of transportation is often referred to by the phrase.
ISO 9000 - A number of international quality standards that are voluntary.
Joint Venture - A type of business partnership where firms, sometimes located in separate countries, share risks and profits and operate the business together.
Just in Time (JIT) - The production and inventory control principle according to which items are delivered when they are required for production or use.
Knot, Nautical - One nautical mile is equal to 6,080.20 feet per hour, or 1.85 kilometres per hour.
L/C – Letter of Credit
LCL - Less than Container Load; Less than Car load.
L&D - Loss and Damage.
Legal Weight - The combined weight of the product and any immediate packaging or wrapping that is sold with the product, such as the combined weight of a tin can and its contents.
Less than Truckload (LTL) - Rates that apply when the volume or truckload minimum weight is not met by the amount of freight.
Letter of Credit (L/C) - A document issued by a bank on the buyer's behalf that permits the seller to withdraw a specific amount of money under certain conditions. issued with or without revocation.
Letter of Credit, Confirmed - A letter of credit that guarantees payment to the seller as long as the seller's paperwork is in order and the letter of credit's conditions are met, from both the issuing and advising institutions.
Lighter - A crane-equipped open or covered barge being pulled by a tugboat used primarily in inland waterways and harbors.
Liner - The term "line traffic," which refers to travel along predetermined routes according to predetermined, set schedules, is where the word "liner" originates. Thus, a vessel that performs this type of transportation—which typically entails the haulage of general goods as opposed to bulk cargo—is referred to as a liner.
Load Factor - Utilized capacity as a percentage of the available capacity.
Logistics Management - The management of the physical transportation of commodities from supply sites to the point of sale, as well as the transfer and storage of those goods at numerous intermediate storage locations, in an efficient and economical manner.
Lo/Lo (Lift-On/Lift-Off) - Refers to the process of loading and unloading cargo from an ocean vessel, in this instance using a crane.
LTL – Less than truck load.
Manifest - A list of the items that a carrier is transporting.
Measurement Ton - The measuring tonne, often called a cargo tonne or freight tonne, is a unit of volume that typically measures 40 cubic feet or one square metre. Each 40 cubic feet or one cubic metre of cargo is charged at a specific tariff.
MERCOSUR - A trade alliance between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, with Chile and Bolivia as associate members.
M/T or Metric Ton - 1000 Kilos.
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) - A free trade agreement comprising the U.S.A, Canada and Mexico.
National Carrier - A flag carrier that the government owns or controls.
Net Terms - Free of charters' commission.
Net Weight (Actual Net Weight) - The weight of the items / goods themselves with no strapping / wrapping.
Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) - An FMC-Iicensed cargo consolidator of cargoes in ocean trade is known by this name in the US. They often arrange for or carry out consolidation and containerization functions. NVOCCs operate under distinct regulations in trade lanes that do not involve the United States of America, therefore official licencing may not be necessary.
NOS - Not Otherwise Specified.
NT - Net Tons.
NVOCC – Non Vessel Operating Common Carrier
OD - Outside Diameter.
Open Account - A commerce agreement wherein items are transferred to a foreign customer without a formal written proof of debt, such as a note, L/C, or other document guaranteeing payment.
Open Policy - A cargo insurance policy that is an open contract; for instance, it offers protection for all goods in transit for a set amount of time within a given geographic trading region. Since individual shipments are not required to be reported, it is known as a "open" system. Various rules have different requirements for aggregated or summary reporting.
O/R - Owner's Risk.
Part Charter - When a segment of an airline's regularly scheduled flight is offered for sale as a separate charter. is frequently mispronounced as a synonym for divided charter.
Part Load Charter - When a portion of an aircraft's load is unloaded at one location and another. This is different from a split charter, which transports many consignments to the same location. Most countries' policies treat inbound component cargoes as single entity charters.
Particular Average (PA) - Partial loss or damage to goods.
Perils of the Sea - Unforeseen mishaps or casualties specific to maritime transportation, such as sinking, vessel collision, striking a submerged item, or coming into contact with extreme weather or other unique natural phenomena.
Perishables - Any shipment whose value decreases significantly as a result of transportation delays. Fresh fruit and vegetables are typically meant by this.
Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate - A document issued by the department of agriculture of an exporting nation attesting to the inspection and absence of dangerous pests and plant diseases in a shipment.
Pilferage - The phrase "petty theft" as used in maritime insurance plans refers to the taking of little components of a shipment as opposed to the theft of an entire shipment or major unit. Many standard marine insurance policies don't cover theft, so this coverage must be added to the policy if it is desired.
Port Marks - An identifying group of letters, numbers, or geometrical patterns placed on export shipments after the name of the final port of destination. It's possible that port mark regulations from foreign governments will be extremely rigorous.
Port of Discharge - A port where merchandise is discharged from a vessel and offloaded.
Port of Entry - A port where imported commodities are accepted by the receiving nation.
Port of Loading - A port where the vessel's cargo is loaded, lashed, and stowed.
Prepaid Freight - In general, freight charges for both ocean and air transportation may be paid in advance in the currency of the exporting nation or billed collect to be paid by the consignee in his home currency. However, due to foreign exchange restrictions imposed by the import country or requirements of steamship firms or airlines, freight charges on shipments to some countries must be paid in advance.
Prima Facie - A Latin expression that means "on first appearance" and is widely used in international trade. The courts have ruled that when a steamship company issues a clean bill of lading, it acknowledges that the goods were received "in apparent good order and condition," and that this constitutes prima facie evidence of the conditions of the containers; in other words, if nothing to the contrary is shown, it must be assumed that the cargo was in good condition when it was received by the carrier.
Reefer: A refrigerated trailer, container, or railcar used to move perishable goods.
Ro/Ro (Roll-on/Roll-Off) Vessel - A ship built to carry goods that is loaded and unloaded using rollers. Numerous Ro/Ro ships have space for containers and/or break-bulk cargo.
Route - A recognised route that connects the starting place and the finishing station.
Ship's Manifest - A written document that includes a list of the shipments that make up the ship's cargo.
Shipment - One consignor at one location at one time offered freight to a carrier for delivery to one consignee at one location on one bill of lading.
Shipper - An exporter is referred to by this term (usually the seller).
Short-Shipped - Cargo manifested but not loaded.
Steamship Agent - A properly chosen and authorised agent who represents a steamship line or lines in a given area, handling all issues involving the vessels that belong to his principals.
Steamship Line - The following departments are typically present in a company: vessel operations, container operations, tariff department, booking, outward rates, inward rates, and sales. To handle local sales, operations, or other issues, the business can either keep its own offices there or hire steamship agents to act on their behalf. Some lines have appointed agents in some places and liner offices in others.
Stowage - The practice of loading cargo into a ship in a way that ensures the maximum level of efficiency and safety for both the ship and the cargo it transports.
Strikes, Riots and Civil Commotion's - An insurance provision that covers loss or damage caused by people on strike, locked out workers, those involved in labour unrest, and different types of riots. This risk is not covered by a standard marine insurance policy. Only through endorsement is coverage against it able to be added.
Sue & Labor Cause - A clause in marine insurance that requires the insured to take actions after a loss to stop further losses and to behave in the insurer's best interests.
Tare Weight - The weight of packing and containers without the goods to be shipped.
Tariff - A blanket word for any table of costs or rates. The international cable, radio, and telephone tariffs, as well as the customs tariffs of the various nations that list goods that are duty-free and those that are subject to import duty, giving the rate of duty in each case, are the tariffs that are most frequently encountered in international trade. Customs duties are divided into many categories.
Temperature Controlled Cargo - Any cargo that must be transported at a controlled temperature.
Twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) (6.1m). a common measurement used to count containers of various lengths and to express the capacity of container ships or terminals. Two TEUs are equal to a typical 40' container (FEU).
THC (Terminal Handling Charge) - A charge for handling services performed at terminals.
Time Draft - A document that matures after a specified period of time, measured in days either from acceptance or from the draft's creation.
Ton - Depending on the kind of cargo, freight quotes for liner cargo are typically given at a specific rate per tonne. But this tonne might be a measurement or a weight tonne.
Ton-Deadweight - The maximum weight that a ship can carry in terms of people, cargo, fuel, and supplies is expressed in tonnes.
Tracking - A method for tracking the times during which shipments move between points of origin and destinations.
Transshipment - An international trade term for the transfer of a consignment from one carrier to another, most usually from one ship to another. Transshipments are avoided whenever possible since the unloading and reloading of fragile goods may result in damage.
Valuation Charges - Shippers who report a value of goods greater than the value of the carrier's liability limits are subject to additional transportation fees.
Volume Weight - Using the cubic measurement of a shipment as a starting point, the charged weight is calculated. This process is known as international airfreight.
War Risk - The potential hostile measures taken by a belligerent government against a ship and its cargo. A marine policy with a risk clause can cover this danger.
War Risk Insurance - Insurance provided by marine underwriters against expressly mentioned combat operations War risk insurance used to be purchased only during times of conflict, but today many exporters insure the majority of their shipments to protect themselves against losses caused by abandoned torpedoes and floating mines from previous conflicts as well as unanticipated events that could trigger a war. War risk insurance is written in a different policy in the United States than regular marine insurance, so it is best to purchase both policies from the same underwriter to avoid the negative effects of a potential disagreement between underwriters regarding the cause (marine peril or war peril) of a specific loss.
Warehouse Receipt - A receipt listing the commodities that have been deposited at a warehouse. If it solely allows delivery to a specific person or company, it is not negotiable; but, if it is made out to a person, company, or bearer, it is. The property protected by a negotiable warehouse receipt is transferred upon endorsement (without endorsement if made out to bearer) and delivery of the receipt. In international banking, warehouse receipts are a standard kind of documentation.
Warehouse-to-Warehouse - A clause in a maritime insurance policy that, subject to specific restrictions and the law of insurable interest, commits the underwriter to providing coverage for the goods while they are being transported between the place of shipment's origin and their destination. Although the warehouse-to-warehouse clause's terms used to frequently be overridden by maritime extension clauses, they nevertheless hold a lot of weight today.
Gross - The whole weight of the goods, including any interior or external packaging, wrappings, or containers. overall weight as it was shipped.
Net - The weight of the products alone, excluding any packaging.
Tare - The container's or packaging's weight.
Weight/Measurement Ton: A rate is frequently displayed per weight/measurement tonne, at the carrier's discretion. This means that the rate will be calculated on either a weight tonne or measurement tonne basis, depending on whatever will bring in the most money for the carrier.
Weight Ton: A short tonne is 2000 pounds, and a long tonne is 2240 pounds. A tonne in metric units is equal to 1000 kilogrammes.
Weight Load Factor: The percentage of achieved payload compared to the total capacity. Volume, not weight, typically determines how much cargo can be transported; 100% load factors are infrequently attained.
With Average (WA) - A phrase used in marine insurance that means when damage surpasses a certain percentage, shipment is protected against partial damage.
With Particular Average (WPA) - A word used in insurance that denotes coverage for partial loss or damage to goods. Many clauses stipulate that a minimum amount of damage must occur before payment is made, and often the damage must be brought on by sea water. Depending on the type of cargo, it may be expanded to cover loss due to theft, pilferage, leaking, breakage, or other risks.
W/M - Weight and/or Measurement.
CLASSIFICATION AND LABELLING SUMMARY TABLES OF DANGEROUS GOODS
Hazardous materials are chemicals that make transportation risky.
These compounds are all grouped into a few classifications according to their level of danger;
CLASS 1 EXPLOSIVES
1.1 Explosives with a mass explosion hazard
1.2 Explosives with a severe projection hazard
1.3 Explosives with a fire, blast or projection hazard but not with mass explosion hazard.
1.4 Fire or projection hazard
1.5 May explode in fire
CLASS 2 GASES WHICH ARE COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR DISSOLVED UNDER PRESSURE AS DETAILED BELOW
2.1 FLAMMABLE GAS
Gases which ignite on contact with an ignition source.
2.2 NON-FLAMMABLE GASES
Gases which are neither flammable nor poisonous.
Ex: Oxygen, Nitrogen
2.3 POISONOUS GASES
Gases liable to cause death or serious injury to human health if inhaled.
CLASS 3 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
3.1 HIGHLY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS WITH A BOILING POINT BELOW 35°C.
3.2 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS WITH A FLASHPOINT OF LESS THAN 23°C AND BOILING POINT ABOVE 35°C.
3.3 LIQUIDS WITH A FLASHPOINT ABOVE 23°C BUT NOT EXCEEDING 61 °C AND A BOILING POINT GREATER THAN 35°C.
CLASS 4 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS
4.1 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS WHICH ARE EASILY IGNITED AND READILY COMBUSTIBLE.
Ex: Phosphorus, Matches
4.2 SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCES.
Ex: Aluminium Alkyls, White Phosphorus
4.3 SUBSTANCES WHICH EMIT A FLAMMABLE GAS WHEN WET OR REACT VIOLENTLY WITH WATER.
Ex: Sodium, Calcium Carbide
CLASS 5 OXIDISING AGENTS & ORGANIC PEROXIDES
5.1 OXIDISING AGENTS OTHER THAN ORGANIC PEROXIDES.
Ex:Ammonium Nitrate, Hydrogen Peroxide
5.2 ORGANIC PEROXIDES, EITHER IN LIQUID OR SOLID FORM.
Ex: Benzoyl Peroxides
CLASS 6 POISONOUS (TOXIC) AND INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES
6.1A POISONOUS SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE LIABLE TO CAUSE DEATH OR SERIOUS INJURY TO HUMAN HEALTH IF INHALED, SWALLOWED OR BY SKIN ABSORPTION.
Ex:Cyanides, Lead Salts
6.1B TOXIC SUBSTANCES WHICH ARE HARMFUL TO HUMAN HEALTH.
Ex: Low toxicity pesticides
6.2 BIOHAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES.
Ex: Pathology specimens.
CLASS 7 RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES
Radioactive substances comprise substances or a combination of substances which emit radiation.
Ex: Uranium, Radioactive substances,
CLASS 8 CORROSIVES SUBSTANCES
Substances which being solids or liquids may harm living tissue or damage equipment.
8.2 ALKALI SUBSTANCES
8.3 DIFFERENT CORROSIVE AND CAUSTIC SUBSTANCES
Ex: Hydrochloric Acid
CLASS 9 MISCELLANEOUS DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES
Substances which present relatively low hazards.
Ex: Aersols, Deodorants, Polyester Beads.